design material: white and yellow gold, 18Κarat, 750
artisti: Eri Valaskatzi
edition year: 2016
copyright all over the world: Art and science gallery.com
Today, two serpent motifs are commonly used to symbolize the practice and profession of medicine. Internationally, the most popular symbol of medicine is the single serpententwined staff of Asklepios (Latin, Aesculapius), the ancient Greco-Roman god of medicine. However, in the United States, the staff of Asklepios (the Asklepian) and a double serpententwined staff with surmounting wings (the caduceus) are both popular medical symbols. The latter symbol is often designated as the medical caduceus and is equated with the ancient caduceus, the double serpententwined staff of the Greco-Roman god Hermes (Latin, Mercury). Many physicians would be surprised to learn that the medical caduceus has a quite modern origin: Its design is derived not from the ancient caduceus of Hermes but from the printer’s mark of a popular 19th-century medical publisher. Furthermore, this modern caduceus became a popular medical symbol only after its adoption by the U.S. Army Medical Corps at the beginning of the 20th century. This paper describes the ancient origin of the Asklepian and how a misunderstanding of ancient mythology and iconography seems to have led to the inappropriate popularization of the modern caduceus as a medical symbol read more
Brooch in history
BROOCH, or Broach (from the Fr. broche, originally an awl or bodkin; a spit is sometimes called a broach, and hence the phrase “to broach a barrel”; see Broker), a term now used to denote a clasp or fastener for the dress, provided with a pin, having a hinge or spring at one end, and a catch or loop at the other.
Brooches of the safety-pin type (fibulae) were extensively used in antiquity, but only within definite limits of time and place. They seem to have been unknown to the Egyptians, and to the oriental nations untouched by Greek influence. In lands adjacent to Greece, they do not occur in Crete or at Hissarlik. The place of origin cannot as yet be exactly determined, but it would seem to have been in central Europe, towards the close of the Bronze Age, somewhat before 1000 b.c. The earliest form is little more than a pin, bent round for security, with the point caught against the head. One such actual pin has been found. In its next simplest form, very similar to that of the modern safety-pin (in which the coiled spring forces the point against the catch), it occurs in the lower city of Mycenae, and in late deposits of the Mycenaean Age, such as at Enkomi in Cyprus. It occurs also (though rarely) in the “terramare” deposits of the Po valley, in the Swiss lake-dwellings of the later Bronze Age, in
central Italy, in Hungary and in Bosnia.
From the comparatively simple initial form, the fibula developed in different lines of descent, into different shapes, varying according to the structural feature which was emphasized. On account of the number of local variations, the subject is extremely complex, but the main lines of development were approximately as follows.
Towards the end of the Bronze Age the safety-pin was arched into a bow, so as to include a greater amount of stuff in its compass.
In the older Iron Age or “Hallstatt period” the bow and its accessories are thickened and modified in various directions, so as to give greater rigidity, and prominences or surfaces for decoration. The chief types have been conveniently classed by Montelius in four main groups, according to the characteristic forms:—
I. The wire of the catch-plate is hammered into a flat disk, on which the pin rests
II. The bow is thickened towards the middle, so as to assume the “leech” shape, or it is hollowed out underneath, into the “boat” form. The catch-plate is only slightly turned up, but it becomes elongated, in order to mask the end of a long pin.
III. The catch-plate is flattened out as in group I., but additional convolutions are added to the bow.
IV. The bow is convoluted (but the convolutions are sometimes represented by knobs); the catch-plate develops as in group II.. For further examples of the four types, see Antiquities of Early Iron Age in British Museum, p. 32.
Among the special variations of the early form, mention should be made of the fibulae of the geometric age of Greece, with an exaggerated development of the vertical portion of the catch-plate.1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Brooch